Bona Vacantia was a term unfamiliar to me until, as a distant relative of someone who passed away six months ago, I found myself in a perplexing and somewhat disheartened situation. Bona Vacantia, a term rooted in Latin, literally translates to “vacant goods.” It refers to the practice where unclaimed or ownerless property passes by law to the Crown. This situation often arises in cases where a person dies intestate (without a will) and without apparent heirs.

Discovering Bona Vacantia

My journey into the world of Bona Vacantia began with the passing of a relative, whom I admittedly knew little about. It was only after their death that I came to learn about their estate—a modest accumulation of assets and monies that, in the absence of a will, became subject to the rules of intestacy.

The Shock of the Governments Claim

The initial shock came when I discovered that the entire estate had been claimed by Bona Vacantia. As a distant relative, I was unaware of my potential rights or the existence of the estate until later on, when time had passed. The realisation that the state could claim these assets, effectively leaving nothing for distant relatives like me, was both surprising and disheartening.

Understanding the Legal Framework

Upon delving deeper, I learned that Bona Vacantia is not merely a government scheme to seize assets but a legal framework that operates under specific rules. These rules dictate that if a person dies without leaving a will and without known kin, their estate is transferred to the Crown. The rationale is to ensure that assets are not left ownerless and can be put to public use if no rightful heir is found.

The Dilemma of Distant Relatives

The situation placed me in a challenging position. While I understand the legalities, it’s hard not to feel a sense of loss—not just of a potential inheritance but of a connection to a relative’s past. The impersonal nature of the law in this regard seems to overlook the emotional and family ties that distant relatives might still hold.

Navigating the Process

For those who find themselves in a similar situation, navigating Bona Vacantia can be daunting. The first step is to establish a claim. This involves proving your relationship to the deceased, which can be a complex process, especially for distant relatives. The burden of proof lies with the claimant, and the process is often mired in legal and bureaucratic complexities.

Reflections and Moving Forward

I realised the importance of making a will, no matter how small one’s estate might be. It’s a way to ensure that your assets are distributed according to your wishes and that distant relatives are not left in the dark, grappling with legal complexities after your departure.


My encounter with Bona Vacantia has been enlightening and sobering. It underscores the importance of estate planning and the complexities surrounding unclaimed estates. For distant relatives, it’s a reminder of the fragility of familial connections in the face of legal frameworks. While the law serves its purpose, it also brings to light the emotional and personal dimensions that are often overshadowed in the legal discourse of estate succession.

Possibility of Making a Claim

You might be wondering: Is there a possibility that I can reclaim the money or asset?

The answer depends on several factors, including the specific laws of the jurisdiction in question, the time elapsed since the estate was claimed, and my relationship to the deceased.

Here’s a general overview of what I had to consider:

1. Establishing My Claim: The first step I had to take was to establish my relationship with the deceased. That requires providing documentation proving my kinship, such as birth certificates, marriage certificates, and other legal documents that trace my relationship to the deceased.

2. Understanding the Time Limits: There are often strict time limits for making a claim on an estate taken by Bona Vacantia. These time limits can vary depending on the jurisdiction. It was crucial that I act quickly.

3. Legal Jurisdiction: I needed to understand how the Bona Vacantia rules apply in the UK, as rules differ from one jurisdiction to another. In some places, distant relatives might be eligible to make a claim, while in others, the law may only recognise closer relatives.

4. Seek Legal Advice: Given the complexities involved, it’s advisable to seek legal advice. Wills Tax & Trusts Ltd. can provide guidance specific to your situation. We can help you understand your rights and the likelihood of successfully reclaiming the estate.

5. Submitting a Claim: To make a claim, I’ll need to submit a formal application to the relevant bodies handling Bona Vacantia estates. This is typically a government department or a Treasury solicitor’s office.

6. Consideration of the Claim: Once I submit a claim, it will be reviewed to determine its validity. The process can be lengthy and may require additional documentation or evidence.

7. Outcome: If my claim is successful, I may be able to recover some or all of the estate. However, if it’s unsuccessful or if it’s proven that I am ineligible, the estate will remain with the government.

8. Lesson Learned: This highlights the importance of encouraging family members to have up-to-date wills, especially if they have assets they would prefer to pass on to specific individuals.

While it is possible in some cases to reclaim money or assets from an estate claimed by Bona Vacantia, success is not guaranteed and depends on various factors. Prompt action and legal guidance are key to navigating this process.

For all estate planning, wills, and trust planning, contact Wills Tax & Trusts Ltd. today.

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Picture of Ray Best

Ray Best

Like his academic development, writing came late to Ray. He has written several published works, “Inheritance Tax Planning – My Way” and “Shareholder Protection & Partnership Protection” and has had four feature articles published in Tax Adviser magazine, but the publication he is most noted for is the joint collaboration with Tony Granger “Inheritance Tax Simplified”.

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